Sunday, March 20, 2016

Elgin's Postwar 16 Size Pocket Watches

Between 1909 and 1945, Elgin's 16s watch movements came in two basic forms, whether Hunter or Open Face.

On the left, you see the format used for watches to 17j (mostly - we are talking about Elgin, after all!).  The Center Wheel jewel is on the Barrel Bridge, while the 3rd, 4th, and Escape Wheel jewels are on the Train Bridge.  This format was introduced in 1896.

On the right is the other format, with the Center and 3rd Wheel jewels on the Barrel Bridge, with the 4th and Escape Wheel pivots on the Train Bridge.  This format was introduced in 1909, and was used for watches from 17j to 23j.

Both types used set jewels in screw-down settings, and for both, the crown and stem were part of the CASE.  The square shank of the case's stem entered a square hole in the Winding Sleeve.

These two formats continued to be used until 1945, including for military watches.  By this time, Hamilton had introduced its 992b and 950b watches, with monometallic balances and Elinvar Extra hairsprings, negating the need for a cut, bimetallic balance to compensate for the change in eleasticity of the steel hairspring over the range of temperatures.  Elgin had been using monometallic balances with hairsprings of its own alloy, called "Elginium".  These first appeared in 536 series 15/0s wristwatches in 1938, and were used in the 554 series of 8/0s movements, as well as the 542 series 10s pocket watches.

It was not until 1944, however, that Elgin introduced alloy hairsprings and monometallic balances in their 16s BW Raymond models, with the model 590, seen above.  The 590 was nearly identical to the earlier 478 BW Raymond which had been Elgin's main Railroad Watch for two decades.  The 590 was apparently introduced because the new 571 series movements were not yet ready, and was sold in 1944 and 1945 only.

In 1946, Elgin introduced a completely redesigned series of 16s movements.  For these, they used a single, new format for all grades.  You can see the difference between the old and the new below.  Both of these are 21j, BW Raymond movements.  The older 590 is on the left, the new model 571 on the right.

The 571 replaces the screwed-down jewels in gold settings with friction-set jewels.  Not as fancy, but easier to manufacture!  The cap jewels are fitted into polished steel settings, which are held in place by screws from underneath the bridge or cock.  If you look close to the foot of the balance cock, you may notice that the regulator screw has moved to the outside of the cock, and that the watch case has been cut to allow access.

The winding and setting works were radically changed.  The picture below shows the keyless works of the pendant set models of the older version.

What you can't see is the cam and lever on the movement side.  The left side is winding mode, with the clutch engaging the bevel pinion.  On the right is setting mode, with the clutch engaging the minute wheel.

Below, the new design, in both pendant set (left) and lever set forms.  These are based on wrist watch keyless works, with the whole stem and crown part of the movement.  The pendant set form uses a standard set lever to both hold the stem in place, and allow pulling the stem up to change into setting mode.  In the lever set form, the set lever is replaced with a detent, which simply holds the stem in place.

Below, both movements are in setting mode.  Pulling up the stem in the pendant set pivots the set lever, which in turn pushes the clutch down into engagement with the minute wheel.  In the lever set model, pulling out the setting lever causes it to push the clutch into engagement with the minute wheel.

There were 5 models sold in the 571 series:

  • 571: 21j, Lever Set, Micrometric Regulator, 8 or 9 Adjustments, BW Raymond Model.  This was the only Railroad Approved grade in the series.
  • 572: 19j, Lever Set, Micrometric Regulator, 5 Adjustments.
  • 573: 17j, Lever Set, Micrometric Regulator, 5 Adjustments.
  • 574: 17j, Pendant Set, Micrometric Regulator, 5 Adjustments.
  • 575: 15j, Pendant Set, Open Regulator, 4 Adjustments.
In 1950, Elgin intoduced their last 'homegrown' 16s watch movement, the 616.  It is essentially the 574, with an Open Regulator.

Below, you can see the full range, from the 571 in the upper left to the 616 in the lower right.  

By 1954, Elgin had stopped production of all but the 571, which continued for sometime after, though it's hard to say how long.  Railroads required movements carry serial numbers to allow them to be properly recorded and tracked, so while all of Elgin's other watches lost their serial numbers in 1954 or so, the 571 was made with a block of I-prefix serial numbers set aside for them. 

The 571 series make a nice little collection, and lots of parts are still readily available.  The hardest to find in good condition tends to be the 575.  Because it was only 15j, they often seem to have been carried till they wore out.  Check the Center Wheel bushing for wear.

Sunday, January 31, 2016

What $10 Will Get You - Epilogue

Back in 2012 when I originally posted 'What $10 Will Get You', I stopped at the point where the movement was cleaned and running well, but the dial was badly pitted and discolored, and there was no crystal.  I put the watch in my "Needs Band And/Or Crystal" drawer, not sure of what to do about the barely readable dial.

Fast forward to December, 2015. In the intervening time, I discovered the model number in the 1939 Elgin Catalog It's an 1843, part of Elgin's "Cavalier" series. 

In 1939, Elgin's Men's watches were divided into a number of different series, from the 21 Jewel Lord Elgin series, introduced in 1937, to the 7j Crusader series.

Great to have a number to put with it!  And to verify the dial and case are authentic, and go with a 7j movement.  One often finds watches with non-authentic dials, or hotrodded, with higher grade movements, or just plain Frankenized - put together from a number of different watches.  This one, though, was authentic.

At least once a day, I check the Elgin Wrist Watch listings on Ebay.  One day in December 2015, more than 3 years after I put the 1843 in the drawer and largely forgot about it, I saw a listing for a similar watch, but with a vastly better dial and hands.  It was listed as nonrunning, "This watch looks great and the balance swings freely, but will not kick over."  I set a snipe, and won it for $20.50.

When it arrived, I found that the 526 movement was wound up tight, and the balance swung freely.  Looking down past the balance, though, I noted that as the balance swung, the pallet didn't move.  Looking in from the side I realized there was no roller jewel.  So, I stole the hands and dial, and put them on my movement.  I used the bezel from the new watch with the caseback and movement of the old watch.  The pigskin strap the seller had installed is a perfect match for the original strap in the catalog pic!  

I also noted a problem with the winding.  It 'skipped' a lot, as if something in the winding mechanism was slipping back with spring tension.  A few years ago, I'd picked up a treasure trove of 8/0 parts on Ebay. Screws, wheels, springs, even jewels.

I replaced the Bevel Pinion and Crown Wheel with new parts, and now it winds perfectly!

So now my 1843 is back in service.  It ended up being a bit more than $10, but I also have an almost-complete 1843, which I may still restore - though redialing it would probably cost more than I've spent altogether so far!

It's also worth noting that my total expenditure so far - $30.51 - is only $5.51 more than the original price of $25.  However, adjusted for inflation, that would be $426.29 in 2015 money!  This is why I feel like vintage watches, especially the less sought-after brands like Elgin, are such a good value!